Programming languages are formal languages that allow programmers to write instructions that a computer can execute. These languages are used to create software, applications, websites, and various other types of computer programs. Each programming language has its own syntax and semantics, which dictate how instructions are written and interpreted.

There are numerous programming languages, each designed with specific purposes and strengths. Some of the most popular and widely used programming languages as of my last update in September 2021 include:

These are just a few examples, and there are many other programming languages, each with its own niche and specific use cases. The choice of language depends on the project's requirements, the programmer's familiarity, and the goals of the development process. Over time, new languages emerge, and the popularity of existing languages may change based on industry trends and technological advancements.